Solid tumors, as the name suggests, are solid masses devoid of fluids or cysts. Tumors that are solid may be either malignant or benign. Solid tumors may only have a different appearance than blood tumors but can also need a different treatment procedure. In the muscles, bone, and organs of the body, solid tumors may develop. Mesothelioma, sarcomas, lymphomas, sarcomas and cancers of the breast, prostate, kidney, ovary, pancreas, thyroid, and colon are examples. Solid tumors are categorized using grades based on the anomalies found in tumor cells by pathologists and how likely the tumor is to spread.
The risk of breast cancer may be increased by mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 (breast cancer 1 and breast cancer 2) genes. BRCA mutations can be inherited, and an increased risk of developing cancer is associated with them. For individuals with a personal or family history of cancer, or for those with a particular form of breast cancer, the BRCA gene test is usually prescribed. Usually, the procedure is not carried out on people with an average risk of breast cancer.
BRCA 1 & BRCA 2 Mutation Analysis
BRCA1 & BRCA2 germline mutations cause inherited breast syndrome and account for about 5-10 % of all cases of breast cancer, and 90% of breast cancer in the family. Mutations impart increased early risk breast cancer, multiple primary breast cancer, male breast cancer, epithelial ovarian cancer, fallopian cancer. Mutations of the BRCA2 are also related to an increased risk of melanoma. In triple-negative breast cancer, the prevalence of the BRCA mutation is increased, especially among younger patients. Mutation prevalence is in the general population, about 1/300 for BRCA1 and 1/800 for BRCA2, with some groups with a higher incidence due to mutations of the founders. Genetic testing promotes therapy selection, preparation for monitoring, and identification of family members at risk.
This test is carried out by sequencing the entire genes of BRCA1 and BRCA2 using massive parallel sequencing, point mutation detection methodologies, small & large insertions / deletions and copy number variations.
The exons of 409 tumour suppressor genes and oncogenes commonly cited and frequently mutated are targeted by the Comprehensive Cancer Panel. Strategically designed to simultaneously analyse coding DNA sequences and splice variants across multiple gene families, our pathway-based gene selection processes the mutational continuum, along with signalling cascades, in cancer driver genes and drug targets. In a single assay, apoptosis genes, DNA repair genes, transcription regulators, genes for inflammatory response and growth factor genes.
Comprehensive Cancer Panel target gene list
RNA fusion panel for Lung Cancer
The most prevalent cancer worldwide is lung cancer. In 2012, there were some 1.82 million new cases worldwide and 1.56 million deaths, representing about 20 percent of all cancers. In India, 6.9% of all new cases of cancer and 9.3% of all cancer-related deaths in both sexes are lung cancer, the most common cancer and cause of cancer-related mortality in men, with the highest recorded incidences.
Chromosome aberrations have been shown to play an important role in the initial steps of tumorigenesis, especially translocations and their subsequent gene fusions. The identification of gene fusions indicates the hope that personalized cancer care decisions will play an important role in the future. In fresh-frozen solid tumours from common cancers, through next-generation sequencing technology, several uncommon gene fusion events have been identified.
This research panel targets over 70 fusion transcripts and has a sensitivity of 1% and the key advantage over current technologies (namely multi-colour fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) is the simplicity of the technique and its associated labour savings, with only a 10ng input RNA requirement and five housekeeping genes as an internal quality control.
RNA fusion panel targeted gene list